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 Italy's Super Volcano Making Noise 
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 Italy's Super Volcano Making Noise
[iHead's up..another one to watch. Italian Super Volcano appears to be waking up.
and they want to bore a hole into it. :crazy

this is a google translation. I will post an english article as soon as i find one.
][/i]

Vulkan in Italian
Volcano in Italy
10th Mai 2010, 10:28 Uhr
May 2010, 10:28 clock

Forscher wollen Neapels Magmamonster anbohren Researchers hope to drill into magma Naples Monster

Von Axel Bojanowski <mailto:axel_bojanowski@spiegel.de>
By Axel Bojanowski <mailto:axel_bojanowski@spiegel.de>

Tief unter der Erde bei Neapel schlummert eine feurige Gefahr:

Die Phlegräischen Felder gelten als einer der größten Vulkane der Welt - mitten in einem dichtbesiedelten Gebiet.
Deep under the earth in a fiery Naples dormant danger: the Campi Flegrei are considered one of the largest volcanoes in the world - the middle of a densely populated area.

Jetzt zeigt der Koloss ungewohnte Aktivität.
Now shows the Colossus unusual activity.

Wissenschaftler sind alarmiert.
Scientists are alarmed.

Die Bohrung bei Neapel zielt mitten ins Herz einer der gefährlichsten Lavaschleudern der Welt.
The hole in Naples seeks to the heart of one of the most dangerous Lavaschleudern the world.

Es geht um die Phlegräischen Felder, ein rund 150 Quadratkilometer großes Gebiet in der Nähe der Metropole am Mittelmeer.
It is about the Campi Flegrei, an approximately 150 sq km area near the capital on the Mediterranean.

Das gewagte Ziel des Unternehmens: Herausfinden, wo das Magma unter dem Areal brodelt.
The bold aim of the company: Finding out where the magma bubbling beneath the area.

"Wir sind bereit", sagte Projektleiter Giuseppe De Natale vom INGV-Osservatorio Vesuviano in Neapel vergangene Woche auf der Jahrestagung der Geowissenschaftlichen Union (EGU) in Wien.
"We are ready," said project manager Giuseppe De Natale from INGV-Osservatorio Vesuviano in Naples last week at the annual meeting of the Geosciences Union (EGU) in Vienna.

Die Phlegräischen ("Brennenden") Felder nahe Neapel sind eine gespenstische Landschaft.
The Phlegraean ("Burning") fields near Naples are an eerie landscape.

Aus gelbbraunen Hügeln wehen schweflige Dämpfe, die nach faulen Eiern riechen.
From yellow-brown hills blowing sulphurous fumes that smell like rotten eggs.

Mancherorts schießen Fontänen heißen Wassers aus der Erde.
In some places, shooting fountains of hot water from the earth.

Doch kein Vulkankegel verrät das Ungetüm.
But no volcanic cone reveals the monster.

Beim letzten großen Ausbruch vor 39.000 Jahren stürzte die Erdkruste ein, nachdem sich die riesige Magmakammer entleert hatte.
During the last major eruption 39 000 years collapsed in the earth's crust, after the huge magma chamber was emptied.

Zurück blieb ein Krater, die sogenannte Caldera. What remained was a crater, called the Caldera.

In ihr liegt nun der Großteil der Metropolregion Neapel (siehe Karte links).
In it lies the majority of the Naples metropolitan area (see map left).

Angesichts von 1,5 Millionen Menschen in der näheren Umgebung handele es sich um "das gefährlichste Vulkangebiet der Welt", sagt De Natale.
constitutes the face of 1.5 million people in the neighborhood are "the most dangerous volcanic region in the world," said De Natale.

Eine große Eruption wie vor 39.000 Jahren könne gar "weite Teile Europas" unter einer dicken Ascheschicht begraben, ergänzt Agust Gudmundsson von der University of London.
A large eruption 39 000 years ago could still even "buried much of Europe under a thick layer of ashes, Agust Gudmundsson supplemented by the University of London.

Ein Wissenschaftlerkonsortium will in den nächsten Jahren im Rahmen des International Continental Scientific Program (ICDP) und des International Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) an sieben Stellen Bohrungen anbringen - sechs in den Meeresboden, eine an Land.
A scientist wants consortium in the coming years as part of the International Continental Scientific Program (ICDP) and the International Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) in position in seven places holes - six in the ocean floor, one on land.

Ziel sei es, Ausbrüche vorhersagen zu können und das Verhalten von Vulkanen zu verstehen, sagt De Natale. The aim was to predict outbreaks and to understand the behavior of volcanoes, says De Natale.

Vorstoß ins Ungewisse
Thrust into the unknown

Die Forscher wollen Einblick in das Innere des Ungetüms erhalten und in den Bohrlöchern Messgeräte installieren.
. The researchers hope to gain insight into the interior of the monster in the drill holes and install measuring devices

Zwar steht die Finanzierung noch nicht komplett. While the funding is not yet complete.

Doch die ersten beiden Bohrungen seien genehmigt, erklärte De Natale in Wien.
But the first two holes were approved, said De Natale at Vienna.

Der erste Vorstoß soll im September auf einem alten Fabrikgelände direkt an der Küste beginnen.
The first thrust is to begin in September at an old factory site on the coast.

Eigentlich war der Start schon für Dezember 2009 geplant.
Actually, the start was already planned for December 2009.

Doch die Bürokratie habe das Projekt verzögert, berichten Forscher.
But the bureaucracy have delayed the project, researchers report.

Die Planung war anspruchsvoll, Behörden mussten von den Sicherheitsvorkehrungen überzeugt werden. The design was challenging, authorities had to be convinced of the safety precautions.

Experten des Geoforschungszentrums Potsdam entwickelten eigens ein Bohrgerät, das der Hitze im Untergrund widerstehen soll.
Experts from the Potsdam Geo Research specially developed a drill that will withstand the heat in the ground.

Magma erwärmt die Erdkruste im Bohrgebiet auf mehr als 500 Grad, erwarten die Experten.
Magma heats the earth's crust in the drilling area to more than 500 degrees, expect the experts.

Doch Gefahr bestehe nicht, beruhigt De Natale. However, there is no danger, soothes De Natale.

Befürchtungen von Vulkanologen, solche Bohrungen könnten Ausbrüche auslösen bezeichnet er als "Unsinn".
Concerns of volcanologists, such holes could trigger outbreaks, he referred to as "nonsense".

Wie es im Untergrund aussieht, wissen die Forscher allerdings nur aus indirekten Beobachtungen, etwa mit Hilfe von Schallwellen, die Querschnittbilder des Bodens liefern.
As the surface looks like, the researchers know only from indirect observations, such as using sound waves to deliver the cross-sectional images of the soil.

Die oberen Erdschichten der Phlegräischen Felder scheinen demnach uninteressant: Sie bestehen vor allem aus Kalkstein, sagt De Natale.
The upper strata of the Campi Flegrei seem therefore uninteresting: They consist mainly of limestone, said De Natale.

Was passiert, wenn die Bohrung auf Magma trifft? What happens when the hole magma meets?

Es gebe aber Hinweise auf Magma in sieben bis acht Kilometern Tiefe - und die wichtigste Frage ist laut De Natale, ob das geschmolzene Gestein auch in geringerer Tiefe schlummert.
But there was evidence of magma in seven to eight kilometers deep - and the most important question is, according to De Natale, if the molten rock lies dormant in less depth.

Die geplanten Bohrungen sollen bis zu vier Kilometer tief in den Boden vordringen.
The planned drilling will penetrate up to four kilometers deep into the ground.

Damit erscheint es eher unwahrscheinlich, dass man direkt auf Magma trifft.
Thus it seems unlikely that one directly hitting magma.

Sollte es dennoch geschehen, wäre auch das kein Risiko, wie der Würzburger Vulkanologe Bernd Zimanowski meint.
However, should it happen, would also no risk, as the Würzburg volcanologist Zimanowski Bernd says. :hmm

Eine Bohrung in eine Magmakammer ähnele einem "Stich in einen äußerst zähen Kuchenteig".
A hole in a magma chamber resembled a "stitch in a very tough cake. :crazy

Eine solch schwerfällige Masse könne durch eine kleine Bohrung nicht in Wallung geraten, meint auch Christopher Kilburn vom University College London, ein leitender Wissenschaftler des Projekts.
Such a heavy mass could not get through a small hole in boil, agrees Christopher Kilburn, of University College London, a senior scientist of the project.

Um einen Ausbruch auszulösen, müsste "eine Kettenreaktion in einer großen Magmakammer in Gang kommen", die Gasblasen im Magma wachsen ließe und so den Druck im Untergrund stark erhöht.
To trigger an outbreak, "a chain reaction in a large magma chamber would have to get going", the gas bubbles could grow in the magma, increasing the pressure in the ground heavily.

Ein "kleines Bohrloch" habe jedoch keinen solch großen Einfluss.
A "small hole" had, however, no such great influence.

Magma sei "viel zu zäh, um durch das Bohrloch zu fließen", so Kilburn.
Magma was "too tough to flow through the hole," says Kilburn.
Der Vulkan atmet The volcano breathes

In Island jedoch ist vergangenes Jahr genau das geschehen
In Iceland, however, past year has done exactly that.

Ende Juni 2009 musste das Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) gestoppt werden, mit dem Erdwärmeenergie erschlossen werden sollte.
End of June 2009 had the Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) stopped, should be developed with the geothermal energy.

Bei 2104 Metern war überraschend Magma ins Bohrloch gequollen.
At 2104 meters, surprising magma had poured into the borehole.

Mit einer kleinen Explosion hatte das heiße Vulkangemisch Bohrflüssigkeit verdampfen lassen. With a small explosion had the hot volcano can evaporate drilling fluid mixture.

2005 erschraken Forscher eines Bohrprojektes auf Hawaii, als eine Substanz mit der Konsistenz von dickem Sirup in ihr Bohrloch quoll.
Researchers in 2005 shocked a drilling project in Hawaii, as a substance with the consistency of thick pouring syrup into her hole.

Auch hier mussten die Arbeiten eingestellt werden. Also in the works had to be set.

Ansonsten blieben die Zwischenfälle aber folgenlos. Otherwise, the incident remained without consequences.

Explodieren könne das Magma ohnehin nur, wenn der Vulkan "sowieso vor dem Ausbruch" stünde, meint Kilburn.
The magma could explode in any case only if the volcano would "in any case before the outbreak," says Kilburn. :huh

Für eine bevorstehende Eruption gebe es bei den Phlegräischen Feldern zwar keine Hinweise.
For an impending eruption there at the Campi Flegrei, although no evidence.

Seit 1968 sei der Vulkan allerdings etwas unruhig geworden.
Since 1968, the volcano is, however, become a little restless.

Der Hafen der Stadt Pozzuoli habe sich seither um drei Meter gehoben; Straßen werfen Wellen.
The port city of Pozzuoli had since been raised by three feet; streets throwing waves.

Der Vulkan bewegt die Landschaft seit Menschengedenken.
The volcano moves the landscape since time immemorial.

Davon zeugen drei berühmte Marmorsäulen aus der Römerzeit auf dem Marktplatz von Pozzuoli.
Of these three famous pillars of marble from the Roman period bear witness to the marketplace of Pozzuoli.

Die Bauwerke stehen auf dem Trockenen und tragen dennoch Spuren von Muscheln.
The buildings are on dry land and still bear traces of shells.

Nicht der Meeresspiegel schwankte hier so stark, sondern das Land.
Not the sea level fluctuated so much here, but the country.

Wie ein unter der Erde atmender Riese heben und senken die Phlegräischen Felder das Gestein.
Like a giant fold in the earth breathing and reduce Phlegraean the rock.

Mehrfach überschwemmte das Meer daher den Marktplatz von Pozzuoli.
Repeatedly flooded the sea, therefore the market place of Pozzuoli.

Dreimal in den vergangenen 2000 Jahren reichte das Wasser an die Muschellöcher heran, im 5., im 9. Three times in the past 2000 years the water was up to the shell holes, in the 5th, 9th und im 14. and in the 14th Jahrhundert. Century.

Doch obwohl sich die Erde ständig bewegte, gab es Ausbrüche nur etwa alle 500 Jahre.
But although the earth moved constantly, there were outbreaks only every 500 years.

Zuletzt spuckten die Phlegräischen Felder im Jahr 1538 etwas Lava und Asche; 24 Menschen sollen damals gestorben sein.
Finally, the Campi Flegrei spat in 1538 some lava and ash, then 24 people should have died.

Stadt musste evakuiert werden
City had to be evacuated

Bodenhebungen seien kein verlässliches Warnsignal für Vulkanausbrüche, resümiert De Natale.
Ground elevations are not a reliable warning sign of volcanic eruptions, says De Natale.

Vermutlich sei es nicht immer Magma, das den Untergrund hebe.
Presumably it was not always magma that raise the base.

Ebenso komme erhitztes Grundwasser in Frage. Just get heated groundwater in question. Als jedoch Anfang der achtziger Jahre der Boden immer heftiger bebte und Gebäude bröckelten, bekamen es die Behörden mit der Angst zu tun: Tausende Bewohner mussten die Altstadt von Pozzuoli verlassen - aus Furcht vor einer Eruption.
However, when the early eighties, more and more violent shaking of the ground and buildings crumbled, the authorities began to do with fear: thousands of residents forced to leave the old town of Pozzuoli - for fear of an eruption.

Doch der Vulkan blieb friedlich.
But the volcano remained peaceful.

Seither ist der Boden wieder abgesunken.
Since then, the soil has become lower.

Doch vor sechs Jahren hat er sich erneut zu heben begonnen, sagt De Natale.
But six years ago he started to lift again, says De Natale.

Viele Einwohner fragen sich nun: Was geht im Untergrund vor?
Many people are wondering now: What is going on in the background?

Die Bohrungen sollen das Geheimnis der Brennenden Felder lüften.
The wells are to solve the mystery of the Burning Fields. URL: URL:
http://www.spiegel.de/wissenschaft/natu ... 42,00.html


Mon May 10, 2010 7:05 am
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Post Re: Italy's Super Volcano Making Noise
Yikes this could get scary if she blows her top :scared :awe

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Mon May 10, 2010 8:55 am
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Post Re: Italy's Super Volcano Making Noise
The was a show of National Geographic just last month, talking about this very Volcano. They have plans to evacuate the city, in sections to try and get the greatest amount of people out safely, however gridlock seems to be the mainstay of this city. Can you imagine stuck in traffic, with that blowing it's top?? Could you wait until it was your neighborhood's time to leave?? Sorry, I'd be gone, long gone. They have even tried to buy people's homes, to get them out of the areas, giving them a token for the homes, so most won't leave, believing that it won't happen in their lives.

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Mon May 10, 2010 1:05 pm
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Post Re: Italy's Super Volcano Making Noise
What an aweful decision that must be to make, take a 1/4 of what your house is worth now or gamble that the Volcano will not blow it's top before you pass onto another plain...

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Mon May 10, 2010 2:08 pm
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Post Re: Italy's Super Volcano Making Noise
Quote:
They have plans to evacuate the city, in sections to try and get the greatest amount of people out safely, however gridlock seems to be the mainstay of this city. Can you imagine stuck in traffic, with that blowing it's top?? Could you wait until it was your neighborhood's time to leave?? Sorry, I'd be gone, long gone.


That is the exact scenario used to evacuate Galveston and parts of Houston before Ike - worked like a charm. You may remember the evacuation for Rita - uh not so well. It was literally first come, first served and we had total gridlock for DAYS!

They will probably do what TPTB did in my area for Ike, the freeways were all turned one way headed north and away from the coast. Within 150 miles in all directions of Houston - traffic was one way outta Dodge.

But... there wasn't a volcano spewing ash and lava everywhere either!

I don't know, Siam, it just might work - at least for a while.

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Mon May 10, 2010 2:42 pm
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Post Re: Italy's Super Volcano Making Noise
It might, however, remember that they have very narrow streets, not highways like we do, in their city center. I sure hope it works, cause there would be a lot of dead folks if it doesn't.

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Post Re: Italy's Super Volcano Making Noise
Waking Hades :shock:

Fearing a global catastrophe, the mayor of Naples may halt exploration of the massive volcano that lies under her city. But some scientists say inaction could be riskier.

Reporter Cam: Pouzzouli, Italy on Unsteady Ground

It is a stretch of southern Italy known as the Phlegraean Fields, or "burning fields." According to Greek mythology, this is where the god of fire, Hephaestus, made his home and where an epic battle between the Titans and the world's most powerful deities shook the earth. The ancient Romans said the entrance to Hades was also here, hidden beneath a serene lake.

snip

The ground under the small fishing villages in this area around Naples is in constant slow movement because of volcanic activity deep below the surface. In Pozzuoli, a town just north of the city, the walls of the terra-cotta villages are falling down. The earth has risen and dipped more than 11 feet in the last decade, destroying roads, a hospital, and thousands of homes. Small tremors are common. On the outskirts of town, fields of boiling mud and dramatic sulfur spouts known as the Solfatara are a constant reminder that Naples sits on the Campi Flegrei caldera, or cauldron, one of the world's most dangerous volcanoes.

snip

...Campi Flegrei, which stretches under the bay to the islands of Capri and Ischia, actually dwarfs Vesuvius in both size and potential threat. Giuseppe De Natale, head of research at the National Observatory for Geophysics and Volcanology, says the multi-crater Campi Flegrei caldera is a "supervolcano," with the eruptive potential to affect not just the immediate area but the entire planet.

snip

De Natale is leading a consortium of volcano experts from 18 countries in a two-tier plan to drill into the underground caldera to find out just how imminent the threat is.

snip

Read more here: http://www.newsweek.com/2010/10/20/should-scientists-probe-the-massive-volcano-under-naples.html

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Wed Oct 20, 2010 6:29 am
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