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 WW2 History of How the War Ended 
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Post Are you a History buff?
I wasn't sure where to put this thread so I oput it here for now.
If it draws some interest I may make a section for History so that we can post about different aspects of history.

I was sent an email of this WW2 signing of the Japans Surrender which I had NOT scene the full version of so I thought I would share it.
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Sat Apr 17, 2010 8:06 pm
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Post Re: Are you a History buff?
WOW, L, I was just looking for a place to post this, and couldn't find one until I saw this thread. Great minds!! ...... With the interest in Monday, April 19, I thought I'd see what else happened on that day. As we all know, history repeats itself, so:

I've excerpted some items, mostly Boston Marathons and sports, along with plays and musical openings, of which there were many. I noticed quite a few nuclear tests, space-related happenings and many political events. April 19th is also the date for some major acts of violence or events related to violence: Waco, Oklahoma bombing, Manson sentencing, Rodney King law suit ended.

Mid-April has seen other massacres as well as the two above mentioned: Virginia Tech, Columbine, Hitler's burning of the Warsaw Ghetto,

On this day...
0607 Comet 1P/607 H1 (Halley) approaches within 0.0898 astronomical units (AUs) of Earth
1451 Alam Shah of Delhi resigns throne
1524 Pope Clemens VII fires Netherlands inquisitor-General French Van de Holly
1529 2nd Parliament of Spiers bans Lutheranism
1539 Charles, protestant German monarch, signs Treaty of Frankrfurt
1552 Mauritius of Saksen captures Karel
1587 Sir Frances Drake sails into Cadiz Spain & sinks Spanish fleet
1591 Chartres surrenders to king Henri IV in France
1713 Emperor Karel VI ends Pragmatic Sanctions
1770 Amsterdam buys Van Aerssens family 1/3 part of Suriname
1770 Captain James Cook 1st sees Australia
1774 CW Glucks opera "Iphigenia in Aulis", premieres in Paris France
1775 Minutemen Captain John Parker orders not to fire unless fired upon
1775 Revolution begins-Lexington Common, shot "heard round the world"
1782 Netherlands recognizes US
1825 33 patriotic exiles return to Uruguay
1837 Cheyney University forms as the Institute for Colored Youth
1839 Treaty of London constitutes Belgium an independent kingdom and Luxembourg a Grand Duchy
1852 California Historical Society forms
1853 Netherlands Van Hall government forms
1861 Baltimore riots - 4 soldiers, 9 civilians killed
1861 Lincoln orders blockade of Confederate ports (Civil War)
1863 Union troops/fleet occupy Fort Huger VA
1864 Naval Engagement at Cherbourg, FR USS Kearsage vs CSS Alabama
1874 Barracks on Alcatraz Island destroyed in fire
1896 Herzl's "The Jewish State" is published
1897 1st Boston Marathon won by John McDermott of New York in 2:55:10
1904 Much of Toronto destroyed by fire
1909 Joan of Arc, declared a saint
1910 Halley's comet seen by naked eye 1st time this trip (Curacao)
1916 Italians troops conquer Colonel di Lana at Merano
1919 French assembly decides on 8 hour work day
1919 Leslie Irvin of US makes 1st parachute jump & free fall
1921 Funeral of last German Emperoress, Augusta Victoria
1923 New Egyptian law allows suffrage for men, except soldiers
1928 Japanese troops occupies Sjantung-schiereiland
1932 President Herbert Hoover suggests 5 day work week
1933 FDR announces US will leave the gold standard
1936 Anti-Jewish riots break out in Palestine
1939 Connecticut finally approves Bill of Rights (148 years late)
1940 "Lake Shore Ltd" derails, killing 34 near Little Falls NY
1940 Dutch prime minister De Geer declares state of siege
1941 Bulgarian troops invade Macedonia
1941 Milk rationed in Holland
1943 Jews attack Nazi occupation forces at Warsaw Ghetto under Mordechai Anielewicz
1944 Allied fleet attack Sabang Sumatra
1945 US aircraft carrier Franklin is heavily damaged in Japanese air raid
1947 French ship explodes in Texas City harbor, kills about 522
1948 ABC-TV network begins
1948 Chiang Kai-shek elected President of Nationalist China
1951 General Douglas MacArthur ends his military career
1956 US actress Grace Kelly marries Monaco's Prince Rainier III (civil ceremony)
1959 Uprising in La Paz Bolivia, fails
1962 NASA civilian pilot Joseph A Walker takes X-15 to an altitude of 6,900 meter
1964 Rightist coup in Laos, Suvanna Phuma remains premier
1964 Roger Sessions' opera "Montezuma", premieres in West-Berlin
1965 T.A.M.I. Show premieres in London
1965 1st all news radio station (WINS 1010 AM in NYC) begins operating
1967 US Surveyor III lands on Moon
1967 Yugoslav author Mihaljo Mihaljov sentenced 4½ years\1968 Belgian construction workers strike
1971 Sierra Leone becomes a republic (National Day)
1971 USSR Salyut 1 launched; 1st manned lab in orbit
1971 Charles Manson sentenced to life (Sharon Tate murder)
1972 Bangladesh becomes a member of British Commonwealth
1972 Hungary revises constitution
1972 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
1973 USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakhstan/Semipalitinsk USSR
1975 India launches 1st satellite with help of USSR
1978 Yitzhak Navron elected 5th President of Israel
1979 FCC raids & shuts down pirate radio station WFAT (Brooklyn NY)
1982 Sally Ride announced as 1st woman astronaut
1982 USSR Salyut 7 space station put into orbit
1982 Guinon Bluford announced as 1st black astronaut
1983 France performs nuclear test
1984 Nemesis, death star of dinosaurs 1st appears in print (Nature magazine)
1985 16th Space Shuttle Mission (51-D)-Discovery 4 returns to Earth
1985 USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakhstan/Semipalitinsk USSR
1987 Last wild condor captured on California wildlife reserve
1987 USSR performs underground nuclear test
1989 Gun turret explodes on USS Iowa, killing 47 sailors
1990 Contra guerrillas, leftist Sandinistas & incoming government agree to truce in Nicaragua's civil war
1991 Greyhound Bus posts $195 million loss for 1990
1993 Branch Dividians/FBI 51 day standoff in Waco TX ends with the deaths of 4 FBI Agents and numerous deaths from suicide of the cult members
1993 Fire in psychiatric institute in South Korea, kills 40
1994 Inkatha ends boycott of South African multi-racial election
1994 Rodney King award $3,800,000 in compensation of police beating
1994 Supreme Court outlaws excluding people from juries because of gender
1995 Chopper 4 1st used on WNBC TV (NYC) news
1995 Truck bomb outside Alfred P Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, kills 168 & injures 500





Holidays
Note: Some Holidays are only applicable on a given "day of the week"

Cuba : Bay of Pigs Victory Day (1961)
England : Primrose Day
Sierra Leone : Republican Anniversary Day (1971)
Uruguay : Landing of the 33/Desembarco de los "Treinta y Tres" (1825)
US : John Parker Day (1775) honors minutemen
Venezuela : Declaration of Independence Day/Day of Indian
Massachusetts, Maine : Patriots Day-Boston Marathon run (1775) - - - - - ( Monday )

Religious History
1529 In Germany at the Diet of Spires (Speyer), a document signed by Lutheran leaders in fourteen cities lodged a "protest" which demanded a freedom of conscience and the right of minorities. Henceforth, the German Lutheran Reformers were known as "Protestants."
1887 The Catholic University of America was chartered in Washington, D.C.
1930 American pioneer linguist Frank C. Laubach, while serving as a missionary in the Philippines, wrote in a letter: 'Fellowship with God is like a delicate little plant, for a long nurturing is the price of having it, while it vanishes in a second of time, as soon as we try to seat some other unworthy affection beside Him.'
1941 Robert F. Wagner, Sr. introduced a resolution in the U.S. Senate stating that U.S. policy should favor the "restoration of the Jews in Palestine." The resolution was supported by 68 Senators.

Source: William D. Blake. ALMANAC OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH. Minneapolis: Bethany House, 1987.
Additional information supplied by the author. Contact via E-mail: William D. Blake. (pilgrimwb@aol.com)
Thought for the day :
" Better to be religious with your eloquence, than eloquent with your religion. "

http://www.scopesys.com/cgi-bin/today2.cgi

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"The world will not be destroyed by those who do evil, but by those who watch them without doing anything." ~ Albert Einstein


Sat Apr 17, 2010 11:56 pm
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Post Re: Are you a History buff?
There will be a special tonight on CNN. I actually saw this piece on CNN last night where they interviewed the youngest survivors. It was very touching and very emotional.

15 years later, victims, residents remember Oklahoma City bombing :candle
By Ed Payne, CNN

(CNN) -- Fifteen years ago, a bomb ripped through a federal building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, in the worst homegrown terrorist attack on U.S. soil.

The April 19, 1995, attack killed 168 people, shattering the notion of many that America was largely immune to domestic terrorism.

Fifteen years later, its impact still reverberates with those who lived through it.

Don Gordon, 37, who was about seven miles away from the Alfred P. Murrah federal building at the time of the blast, remembers feeling the force of the explosion as he was backing out of a parking spot at a grocery store.

"It felt like I'd hit a car," he said of the concussion from the blast. "I looked and saw a ton of smoke pouring from downtown."

The tragedy became readily apparent as the day went on when he saw the damage to the building and bodies being pulled from it.

"It was absolutely horrifying," said Gordon, a fourth-generation jeweler whose family's presence in Oklahoma predates statehood. "It was horror in real life."

Army veteran Timothy McVeigh was eventually convicted on federal murder charges in connection with the bombing and executed in 2001.

McVeigh said he set off the bomb in front of the Murrah building at 9:01 a.m. CT in part to seek revenge against the U.S. government for its raid on the Branch Davidian compound in Waco, Texas, on April 19, 1993.

On Monday, Homeland Security Secretary Janet Napolitano will travel to Oklahoma City to commemorate the 15th anniversary of the bombing. There, she will talk about the steps her office is taking to combat the evolving threats of terrorism.

Of the people killed in the attack, 19 were children who were at a day care center in the facility. Miraculously, six children survived and are now teenagers and young adults.

P.J. Allen, now 16, was 18 months old when the bomb brought the building down on top of him, forcing him to inhale hot air and smoke.

"His lungs were severely damaged," said Deloris Watson, Allen's grandmother. "It was touch and go for P.J. for a long time."

Now in high school, Allen works with a tutor every week and hopes to study mechanical engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

He also loves sports, but his damaged lungs keep him from taking part competitively.

"My asthma stops me from running all the time," said Allen, who speaks with a hint of a rasp in his voice between quick pauses to catch his breath. "Sometimes, coaches wouldn't want to play me because I might get hurt."

Despite the hardships and years of surgeries, including numerous tracheotomies, Allen said he hardly ever asks, "Why me?"

"Because to me, this is normal," Allen explained. "As far as I remember, this has been what my life has been like."

Brother and sister Brandon and Rebecca Denny were hurt in the attack, although it was the older brother who received the more permanent injuries.

While then 2-year-old Rebecca Denny required 240 stitches to patch her up, her brother -- then 3 -- suffered severe brain injuries, leaving the right side of his body weak.

"First of all, they said he might not live, and second of all, if he does live, he will never walk or talk again," said mother Claudia Denny.

But Brandon Denny proved doctors wrong. He not only survived but he is now a junior in high school with his sister.

"When you go through something like this, it just doesn't go away, like the next day or the next year. It affects you for your whole life," said Rebecca Gordon, who still wonders why she was lucky enough to survive.

"I wonder," she said, "but I don't know, I guess I have something important to do."

That sense of destiny is shared by another childhood survivor: Chris Nguyen, now a sophomore at the University of Oklahoma in nearby Norman.

"I've been given like a gift, you might say, and if I don't make something of my life to succeed and make a difference of some kind, then I would have wasted my life," Nguyen said.

"I think about the other parents -- all the other day care children and families -- who've lost someone ... but I feel guilty almost that Brandon, Rebecca, P.J. and I, we get to live our lives ... and the other people, they don't get that opportunity," he said.

If anything good came out of the bombing, Gordon said, it was that Oklahoma City forged a common bond.

"It was horrible, but so much good came out of it," he said. "This whole city pulled it together. It was phenomenal."

CNN's Don Lemon contributed to this report.

http://www.cnn.com/2010/US/04/19/okc.bombing.anniversary

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Mon Apr 19, 2010 7:00 am
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Post Re: Are you a History buff?
What We Learned in Oklahoma City
By BILL CLINTON

FIFTEEN years ago today, the bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Building in Oklahoma City claimed the lives of 168 men, women and children. It was, until 9/11, the worst terrorist attack in United States history. But what emerged in its aftermath — the compassion, caring and love that countless Americans from all walks of life extended to the victims and their families — was a powerful testament to the best of America. And its lessons are as important now as they were then.

Most of the people killed that day were employees of the federal government. They were men and women who had devoted their careers to helping the elderly and disabled, supporting our veterans and enforcing our laws. They were good neighbors and good friends. One of them, a Secret Service agent named Al Whicher, a husband and father of three, had been on my presidential security detail. Nineteen children also lost their lives.

Those who survived endured terrible pain and loss. Thankfully, many of them took the advice of a woman who knew how they felt. A mother of three children whose husband had been killed on Pan Am Flight 103 in 1988 told them, “The loss you feel must not paralyze your own lives. Instead, you must try to pay tribute to your loved ones by continuing to do all the things they left undone, thus ensuring they did not die in vain.”

We are all grateful that so many of the attack’s survivors have done exactly that. We must also never forget the courageous and loving response of the people and leaders of Oklahoma City and the state of Oklahoma, as well as the firefighters and others who came from all across America to help them.

In the wake of the bombing, Oklahoma City prompted Congress to approve most of the proposals I submitted to develop a stronger and more systematic approach to defending our nation and its citizens against terrorism, an effort that continues today, as we saw with President Obama’s impressive international summit meeting last week to secure all sources of nuclear material that can be made into bombs.

Finally, we should never forget what drove the bombers, and how they justified their actions to themselves. They took to the ultimate extreme an idea advocated in the months and years before the bombing by an increasingly vocal minority: the belief that the greatest threat to American freedom is our government, and that public servants do not protect our freedoms, but abuse them. On that April 19, the second anniversary of the assault of the Branch Davidian compound near Waco, deeply alienated and disconnected Americans decided murder was a blow for liberty.

Americans have more freedom and broader rights than citizens of almost any other nation in the world, including the capacity to criticize their government and their elected officials. But we do not have the right to resort to violence — or the threat of violence — when we don’t get our way. Our founders constructed a system of government so that reason could prevail over fear. Oklahoma City proved once again that without the law there is no freedom.

Criticism is part of the lifeblood of democracy. No one is right all the time. But we should remember that there is a big difference between criticizing a policy or a politician and demonizing the government that guarantees our freedoms and the public servants who enforce our laws.

We are again dealing with difficulties in a contentious, partisan time. We are more connected than ever before, more able to spread our ideas and beliefs, our anger and fears. As we exercise the right to advocate our views, and as we animate our supporters, we must all assume responsibility for our words and actions before they enter a vast echo chamber and reach those both serious and delirious, connected and unhinged. :heart

Civic virtue can include harsh criticism, protest, even civil disobedience. But not violence or its advocacy. That is the bright line that protects our freedom. It has held for a long time, since President George Washington called out 13,000 troops in response to the Whiskey Rebellion.

Fifteen years ago, the line was crossed in Oklahoma City. In the current climate, with so many threats against the president, members of Congress and other public servants, we owe it to the victims of Oklahoma City, and those who survived and responded so bravely, not to cross it again. :heart

Bill Clinton, the founder of the William J. Clinton Foundation, was the 42nd president of the United States.

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/04/19/opinion/19clinton.html?hp=&pagewanted=print

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Mon Apr 19, 2010 7:16 am
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Post Re: Are you a History buff?
Columbine prepares for shooting anniversary :candle :heart
By Moni Basu, CNN
STORY HIGHLIGHTS

(CNN) -- The scrolling list of online student activities for Tuesday, April 20, lists a spring play rehearsal, a talk by "famous photographer, John Fielder" -- and "NO SCHOOL."

It's a tough day to be within those walls.

It was there, 11 years ago, that Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold embarked on a massacre -- shooting 12 classmates and a teacher dead and injuring 23 others before turning the gun on themselves.

Columbine High School was forever etched into the psyche of America.

The top news story of 1999. An iconic shooting. An event prompted intense debate over gun control.

"A day that changed us forever," as former President Bill Clinton said at 10th anniversary observances last year. Clinton, who was in the White House at the time of the killings, said he was personally inspired by the courage of the Columbine community.

Tuesday marks anniversary number 11, an odd-year milestone that millions of Americans will let come and go without notice. But for the survivors, for the victims' families and friends, time's steady march is not enough to dull the pain. The memories are still raw in Littleton, Colorado.

Principal Frank DeAngelis attended a teary prom last weekend when Columbine crowned a king and queen with special needs. An act of goodwill and fraternity. An act exemplifying the human spirit.

"This," DeAngelis told CNN affiliate KMGH in Denver, is what Columbine is all about." :heart

In far away Dallas, Texas, Jordan Niland, 17, said he is sure to pick up his telephone Tuesday. He will dial the number of Richard Castaldo.

Castaldo, a junior at Columbine in 1999, suffered five gunshot wounds to his chest, back, arm and colon that left him paralyzed from the waist down.

Niland was a young boy then. But after seeing Michael Moore's documentary, "Bowling for Columbine," he struck up a MySpace conversation with Castaldo. The two have been friends since."

"The anniversary means so much to me," Niland said. "I have had the privilege to talk and get to know a survivor and to fully understand what really went on that day."

If people could personally hear Castaldo's story, Niland said, they would stop to reflect on this day. Because such a horror, he said, should not be forgotten.

And because life goes on.

A Columbine memorial dedicated in 2007, is sure to be visited Tuesday. But like the tragedy itself, the memorial, meant as a place of reflection, is incomplete, gaps running through it like the voids in people's lives.

The memorial park has posted a wish list to complete the peace it is intended to bestow.

Hackberry trees, lavender mist, spirea, purple asters. And 24 columbines. Any variety will do, the memorial's website says. As long as they are columbines.

http://www.cnn.com/2010/US/04/20/columbine.anniversary/index.html?hpt=T2

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Tue Apr 20, 2010 6:19 am
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Post Re: Are you a History buff?
Commemorating San Jacinto Day
Light Townsend Cummins, Texas State Historian
Published: 6:03 p.m. Tuesday, April 20, 2010

The battle was over in just 18 minutes. The struggle to understand its meaning has never ended.

On the afternoon of April 21, 1836, Gen. Sam Houston led a relatively small Texian Army into battle against the much larger force under the command of General Antonio López de Santa Anna.

Houston's victory secured Texas independence.

Is it still important for all Texans to commemorate San Jacinto Day? Is remembering that battle today something worthwhile for all Texans as diverse individuals representing a myriad of backgrounds or walks of life?

These can be hard questions to answer, especially because Texas history used to emphasize only one side of the story: the Anglo American. Today, that viewpoint has expanded to include a much broader understanding of our Texas past.

Texas history now acknowledges that the Battle of San Jacinto was a complex historical drama. We realize that fighting as comrades alongside Sam Houston were Juan Seguin, Martín Flores, Antonio Treviño, José Molino, José Palonio Lavigna and others of Tejano heritage. Readable, well-researched and timely histories written from the Tejano viewpoint allow us to focus on that part of our history.

And what of the Mexican soldiers? Did they not also have letters, lockets and trinkets from loved ones back home tucked away in their shirt pockets on the battlefield, as did the Texians? Did they not have their battle-charged moments of human emotion during the fighting? Is there not a meaningful story to tell about the Mexican army, too — especially the regular soldiers?

Indeed, there is. Studies are appearing that examine the Mexican army as part of the larger context of Texas history. And none of this takes away from what Texas history we already knew and always have honored about the battle. It only adds to our understanding as the expanded story of Texas becomes more relevant to a larger group of present-day Texans.

A 570-foot-high monumental column marks the spot of that battle, 22 miles southeast of modern Houston. Opened in 1939, this monument is home to the San Jacinto Museum of History. The museum perpetuates the historical memory of that fateful day by means of its exhibits, library and archives. It also encourages an appreciation of the larger sweep of Texas history.

On Saturday, the San Jacinto Museum will mark the battle's anniversary by offering a full day of historically-related events that will be open to the public without charge, including a re-enactment of the battle. :mrgreen:

The Battle of San Jacinto remains important for all Texans. It should be remembered by everyone from all backgrounds and walks of life.

Cummins is a professor of history at Austin College in Sherman. He is a a sixth-generation Texan whose forebearers fought at the Battle of San Jacinto.

http://www.statesman.com/opinion/cummins-commemorating-san-jacinto-day-591056.html

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Wed Apr 21, 2010 7:07 am
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Post Re: Are you a History buff?
Aggie Muster

Muster officially began on April 21, 1922 as a day for remembrance of fellow Aggies. Muster ceremonies today take place in approximately 320 locations globally including Kabul, Afghanistan, and Baghdad, Iraq. The largest muster ceremony occurs in Reed Arena, on the Texas A&M campus. The "Roll Call for the Absent" commemorates Aggies, former and current students, who died that year. Aggies light candles, and friends and families of Aggies who died that year answer “here” when the name of their loved one is “called”. Campus muster also serves as a 50th year class reunion for the corresponding graduating class. Some non-campus muster ceremonies do not include the pageantry of the campus ceremony, and might consist simply of a barbecue.

World War II
The most well-known Aggie Muster took place during World War II in 1942 on the Philippine island of Corregidor. At this time, Corregidor was the last American stronghold against the Japanese forces in the Philippines, and Japanese artillery and warplanes were constantly attacking. An estimated 1.8 million pounds of shells pounded the island in one five-hour stretch. The American artillery commander on Corregidor was Brigadier General George F. Moore, a 1908 graduate of Texas A&M. With the help of Major Tom Dooley, class of 1935, Moore gathered the names of 25 other Aggies under his command. Despite the fierce fighting as the Japanese laid siege to the island, on April 21, 1942 Moore held a roll call—known as muster in army terms—calling the names of each of the Aggies under his command.

Only twelve of the twenty-five survived the battle and the POW camps to which the survivors were sent. Dooley told a United Press correspondent about the gathering, and the reporter sent an article back to the USA about the 25 Aggies who had "Mustered." The story captured the imagination of the country and "helped boost American spirits at a time a lift was badly needed."[5] T.R.Louder, the last known Corregidor Muster survivor died May 21, 2001 and his name was called at Muster 2002 in College Station.

Association of Former Students Executive Secretary E. E. McQuillen, Class of 1920, is given credit for refocusing San Jacinto Day as a remembrance for fallen Aggies. He changed the April 21, 1943 celebration to be the first known as an Aggie Muster and sent packets to each A&M club, Aggie Moms club, and to military bases around the world with a detailed program of events for April 21. It included greetings from the A&M President and the Muster Poem. The response was overwhelming, with 10,000 Aggies worldwide mustering in 500 locations. The following year McQuillen added a list of recently deceased Aggies to the packets, asking each local group to choose names from the list and call them aloud during their ceremony, and "as each name is called a comrade will answer 'Here.'"

In April 1945, just eight weeks after Corregidor had been recaptured by the Allies, three Aggies conducted a Muster "on the Rock." They wrote letters home to McQuillen to let him know about their impromptu Muster. A year later, on April 21, 1946, an even larger Muster occurred on Corregidor. With the War now over, A&M held a special Victory Homecoming Muster on Easter morning in 1946. Over fifteen thousand Aggies gathered at Kyle Field to listen to a speech by General Dwight D. Eisenhower. Lt. Col. Tom Dooley also presented the "Muster Tradition," and conducted a W.W. II Roll Call. To represent the 900 Aggies who died in World War II, the names of the four deceased WW II Aggie Medal of Honor winners were called.

Roll Call for the Absent

In many lands and climes this April day
Proud sons of Texas A&M unite.
Our loyalty to country, school, we pray,
and seal our pact with bond of common might.

We live again those happy days of yore
on campus, field, in classroom, dorm, at drill
Fond memory brings a sigh -- but nothing more;
Now we are men and life’s a greater thrill,

On Corregidor * years ago today
A band of gallant Aggies, led by Moore,
Held simple rites which led to us doth all to say:
The spirit shall prevail through cannon roar.

Before we part and go upon our way,
We pause to honor those we knew so well;
The old familiar faces we miss so much today
Left cherished recollections that time cannot dispel.

Softly call the Muster,
Let comrade answer, “Here!”
Their spirits hover ‘round us
As if to bring us cheer!

Mark them ‘present’ in our hearts.
We’ll meet some other day
There is no death, but life etern
For our old friends such as they!

by Dr. John Ashton ‘06


* The third stanza is original to the poem and had been deleted over the years. It was intended that each year, the number of years since Corregidor would be inserted.

This is a very moving experience and I'm sure will be even more so this year given the events at Ft. Hood.

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Wed Apr 21, 2010 7:13 am
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Post Re: Are you a History buff?
Earth Day at 40: Environmental movement has undergone significant change
By Steve Almasy, CNN
STORY HIGHLIGHTS

(CNN) -- William Moomaw received an unusual request on the morning of April 22, 1970.

The dean's office at Williams College rang the young assistant professor to ask if it could send a junior dean to observe his students. During a time of frequent college campus protests, the administration wanted to make sure the first Earth Day was a day of peaceful rallies, lectures and debates. :roll

"I think they were a little nervous about what we were doing," he said of his environmental science class. "It was high emotional content. People were really upset to learn about the bad things that were happening to the environment then."

After the 75 students finished class, which dealt with the dangers of pesticides, they joined other students at a rally on the Williamstown, Massachusetts, campus.

About half the 2,000 students at the small private school participated in the rally. Thousands of other colleges, high schools and elementary schools across the United States also took part. :heart

"People were pretty upbeat [that day]. Finally we were tackling another unaddressed issue," he said. "There was a real can-do attitude and a real sense that individual and public engagement could change things. A very different attitude than one sees today."

The year 1970 was one of the most tumultuous in U.S. history, during a time when many Americans were growing angrier at the government. The United States was involved in a controversial war in southeast Asia and the invasion of Cambodia set off more student protests and strikes.

People were also increasingly distrustful of big corporations, which they saw as lovers of profit and not the land. Pollution and conservation issues had been gaining the attention of the public. It started with Rachel Carson's popular 1962 book on the dangers of pesticides, "Silent Spring," and the eye on the planet increased with a photo of the Earth taken from Apollo 8 as it orbited near the moon in 1968. The "Earthrise" photo showed Americans the beauty of Earth from a new perspective. :heart

One U.S. lawmaker aimed to bring his favorite issue into the spotlight for one day. Earth Day was the idea of the late Gaylord Nelson, a U.S. senator from Wisconsin who in a speech in September 1969 proposed a day for an environmental teach-in.

Nelson had been an environmental activist for years and in 1963, shortly after he took office in the Senate, he persuaded President Kennedy to go on a five-state conservation tour. The media and the country hardly noticed the tour, so Nelson pondered for some time on how to raise consciousness about the problem. After a visit to an oil spill in 1969, he came up with the idea of involving students in a nationwide grass-roots day of environmental awareness.

He suggested April 22, a Wednesday, as an ideal day to hold the teach-in, as a weekday event would mean more students would be involved, according to nelsonearthday.net, a website run by the Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies.

On that first Earth Day, Nelson, 53, spoke to a larger than expected crowd in Denver, Colorado. He told those gathered that the environmental movement was more than eliminating acid rain, cleaning rivers or saving the whales.

"Our goal is not just an environment of clean air and water and scenic beauty. The objective is an environment of decency, quality and mutual respect for all other human beings and all other living creatures," he said. :clap :heart

About 20 million Americans participated in the first Earth Day, organizers said, though that number is most likely inflated. A CBS News special hosted by Walter Cronkite that night called it a "mixed success," with many people participating, but with most "predominantly young, predominantly white, predominantly anti-[President] Nixon." :roflmao

Still, it was a remarkable day in a watershed year that began the modern environmental movement. Later in 1970, the government passed an expanded Clean Air Act and created the Environmental Protection Agency.

That year marked a real change in the public's attitude toward the planet, and over the past 40 years, people have become more environmentally aware, said the head of a leading environmental organization.

"Environmental quality and the right to environmental quality has really permeated the American consciousness and it's something every citizen expects. It's not just those in the environmental movement," said Frances Beinecke, president of the National Resources Defense Council.

Moomaw, now a professor of International Environmental Policy at Tufts University's Fletcher School, agrees.

Moomaw said that in many ways, the environment is a lot better than 40 years ago. Take for instance the air in Los Angeles, California, which was horrendous then. The ozone level in the area was almost five times greater than the national standard in 1970, according to the California EPA. In 2000, the level had dropped by nearly 70 percent.

Moomaw said it happened because people took their anger to lawmakers.

"And we changed laws and practices and purchases and it got better," he said. "I think the belief in the beginning was that somehow the public would sort of whip the government into shape and they would do the right thing and the world would be saved. I think we all discovered the hard way that it's more complicated than that."

What has changed, the environmentalists say, is there has been a subtle shift from the days of teach-ins to community activism by the middle class to a social movement where people realize the connections between economic status and the health of the planet.

"People are being more realistic about the larger shape of the challenge," said Tom Athanasiou, director of EcoEquity, a think tank that deals with developing viable approaches to climate change. "There's no way that we're going to be able to deal with the climate while leaving all the poor people behind."

He said the green jobs movement -- developing renewable energy companies, hiring companies that use or sell environmentally friendly products -- is key, especially in countries hit by high unemployment. A creative look at how to build infrastructure that emits far less carbon dioxide is vital, he said.

"You have to give the poor alternatives other than to pour into these slum cities that are becoming the norm. You have to give them lower impact options," he said of the movement of people in developing nations to polluted big cities.

The issue is to provide goods and services in an environmentally friendly way that doesn't negatively affect the economy and social structure, Moomaw said.

"The shift that's taken place is to get beyond just protecting the environment. The new way that it is talked about is in terms of sustainable development," he said.

Beinecke said one of the things that is greatly different from 1970 is how to frame the solution to the world's problems. Governments, businesses and individuals all must take a role in eliminating the factors of climate change, but solutions need to be practical and not too expensive, she said.

Earth Day continues to have relevance even though the focus of the event has changed, the experts said. While it is no longer just a college-based event, it still offers teaching opportunities to all types of people and enhances the increased environmental awareness that this generation has gained.

More people are "connecting the dots and understanding that what they do in their lives has an impact on others," Athanasiou said.

Moomaw added that not only are companies now involved in Earth Day, but they are also much more involved in environmental protection.

"There are certainly many, many more corporations that are not only willingly complying with environmental laws but many are going beyond them," he said. "It's an impressive group of companies that are doing those things and they're making a real difference. I don't think anybody believed that would happen in 1970." :clap

That includes companies like DuPont, which has taken steps to dramatically cut its greenhouse gas emissions and use more renewable fuels, and IBM, which has an excellent environmental record, Moomaw said.

For the 40th anniversary of Earth Day, the Earth Day Network is sponsoring events on the National Mall in Washington on April 24 and 25. The schedule includes a climate rally and concert on Sunday featuring Sting and John Legend.

"Earth Day continues to be a national reminder," Beinecke said. "Companies and individuals feel a responsibility to think about the environment, and that is really important."

http://www.cnn.com/2010/US/04/22/earth.day.at.40/index.html?hpt=C1

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Thu Apr 22, 2010 6:20 am
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Post Re: Are you a History buff?
Never forget them - keep them in your hearts - forever young. :heart

Of all the "defining moments" of the Boomer generation - this one is mine. This moment in time became personal for me in sooo many ways - because it could have been ME!

RIP!


Image

Killed (and approximate distance from the National Guard):
Jeffrey Glenn Miller; 20, 265 ft (81 m) shot through the mouth - killed instantly
Allison B. Krause; 19, 343 ft (105 m) fatal left chest wound - died later that day
William Knox Schroeder; 19, 382 ft (116 m) fatal chest wound - died almost an hour later in hospital while waiting for surgery
Sandra Lee Scheuer; 20, 390 ft (120 m) fatal neck wound - died a few minutes later from loss of blood

Wounded (and approximate distance from the National Guard):
Joseph Lewis Jr. 71 ft (22 m); hit twice in the right abdomen and left lower leg
John R. Cleary 110 ft (34 m); upper left chest wound
Thomas Mark Grace 225 ft (69 m); struck in left ankle
Alan Michael Canfora 225 ft (69 m); hit in his right wrist
Dean R. Kahler 300 ft (91 m); back wound fracturing the vertebrae - permanently paralyzed from the chest down
Douglas Alan Wrentmore 329 ft (100 m); hit in his right knee
James Dennis Russell 375 ft (114 m); hit in his right thigh from a bullet and in the right forehead by birdshot - both wounds minor (died 2007)
Robert Follis Stamps 495 ft (151 m); hit in his right buttock (died June 11, 2008)
Donald Scott MacKenzie 750 ft (230 m); neck wound

Kent State Vigil Honors Victims :candle
Tuesday is a solemn day at Kent State University. It was exactly 40 years ago that the Ohio National Guard opened fire during a protest, killing four students and injuring nine others.

Carole Barbato is a Youngstown native and one of three Kent State faculty members who is responsible for the placement of the May 4th, 1970 shooting site on the National Register of Historic Places. "We knew, always knew that this was an important part of American history, those of us that are connected to Kent State," said Barbato.

In addition to the National Register of Historic Places plaque, the university now offers a walking tour of May 4th with markers at seven relevant sites on the campus where Guard members opened fire on student protesting the Vietnam War. Laura Davis, a Kent State Professor and a student at the time of the shootings, says the official recognition of the event acknowledges its impact both nationally and internationally. "This is really an event of enduring meaning in U.S. history, as well as in the lives of individuals. It changed military policy, it helped bring the Vietnam War to a faster conclusion, by changing the way Americans thought about the war," Davis said.

Fundraising for the Kent State May 4 Visitors Center is currently underway. The university seeks to raise $1.5 million to create a museum in a campus building overlooking the area. "We still need to learn from what happened on our campus and what we're hoping to in this visitor's center is to teach those lessons," Barbato explained.

For 23-year-old Kent State senior, Isaac Miller, it's about activism. Miller is a former member of the May 4 Task Force, the university's student-run organization. "For me, what I always remember is, not just that they died, but what they died for and because of." Milller says a joint effort between a community who remembers and students who care will carry on the memorial's tradition. Miller says it's not just a moment to remember in history, but a moment to remember things need to change now and there's a lot of work to do.

http://www.wytv.com/content/news/local/story/Kent-State-Vigil-Honors-Victims/-BE3ZdTQVkSxv3rsSdqIpQ.cspx

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 WW2 History of How the War Ended
Once again this is not really Astronomy or Space related it's more along the lines of history, maybe we need a new section :hmm

Hope you enjoy this as much as I did...

:candle :candle :candle

=============================

HISTORY

Tinian Island, Pacific Ocean.
It's a small island, less than 40 square miles, a flat green dot in the vastness of Pacific blue.
Fly over it and you notice a slash across its north end of uninhabited bush, a long thin line
that looks like an overgrown dirt runway. If you didn't know what it was, you wouldn't give
it a second glance out your airplane window.

Image

Image

On the ground, you see the runway isn't dirt but tarmac and crushed limestone, abandoned with weeds sticking out of it. Yet this is arguably the most historical airstrip on earth. This is where World War II was won. This is Runway Able:

Image

On July 24, 1944, 30,000 US Marines landed on the beaches of Tinian ... Eight days later, over 8,000 of the 8,800 Japanese soldiers on the island were dead (vs. 328 Marines), and four months later the Seabees had built the busiest airfield of WWII - dubbed North Field - enabling B-29 Superfortresses to launch air attacks on the Philippines, Okinawa, and mainland Japan.

Late in the afternoon of August 5, 1945, a B-29 was maneuvered over a bomb loading pit, then after lengthy preparations, taxied to the east end of North Field's main runway, Runway Able, and at 2:45am in the early morning darkness of August 6, took off.

The B-29 was piloted by Col. Paul Tibbets of the US Army Air Force, who had named the plane after his mother, Enola Gay. The crew named the bomb they were carrying Little Boy. 6½ hours later at 8:15am Japan time, the first atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima .

Three days later, in the pre-dawn hours of August 9, a B-29 named Bockscar (a pun on "boxcar" after its flight commander Capt. Fred Bock), piloted by Major Charles Sweeney took off from Runway Able. Finding its primary target of Kokura obscured by clouds, Sweeney proceeded to the secondary target of Nagasaki, over which, at 11:01am, bombardier Kermit Beahan released the atomic bomb dubbed Fat Man.

Here is "Atomic Bomb Pit #1" where Little Boy was loaded onto Enola Gay:

http://www.thegoldenthread.info/photos/ww2/4.bmp

There are pictures displayed in the pit, now glass-enclosed. This one shows Little Boy being hoisted into Enola Gay's bomb bay.

http://www.thegoldenthread.info/photos/ww2/5.bmp

And here on the other side of ramp is "Atomic Bomb Pit #2" where Fat Man was loaded onto Bockscar.

Image

Image

The commemorative plaque records that 16 hours after the nuking of Nagasaki , "On August 10, 1945 at 0300, the Japanese Emperor without his cabinet's consent decided to end the Pacific War."

Take a good look at these pictures, folks. This is where World War II ended with total victory of America over Japan . I was there all alone. There were no other visitors and no one lives anywhere near for miles. Visiting the Bomb Pits, walking along deserted Runway Able in solitude, was a moment of extraordinarily powerful solemnity.

It was a moment of deep reflection. Most people, when they think of Hiroshima and Nagasaki , reflect on the numbers of lives killed in the nuclear blasts - at least 70,000 and 50,000 respectively. Being here caused me to reflect on the number of lives saved - how many more Japanese and Americans would have died in a continuation of the war had the nukes not been dropped.

Yet that was not all. It's not just that the nukes obviated the US invasion of Japan , Operation Downfall, that would have caused upwards of a million American and Japanese deaths or more. It's that nuking Hiroshima and Nagasaki were of extraordinary humanitarian benefit to the nation and people of Japan .

Let's go to this cliff on the nearby island of Saipan to learn why:

Image

Saipan is less than a mile north of Tinian ... The month before the Marines took Tinian, on June 15, 1944, 71,000 Marines landed on Saipan ... They faced 31,000 Japanese soldiers determined not to surrender.

Japan had colonized Saipan after World War I and turned the island into a giant sugar cane plantation. By the time of the Marine invasion, in addition to the 31,000 entrenched soldiers, some 25,000 Japanese settlers were living on Saipan, plus thousands more Okinawans, Koreans, and native islanders brutalized as slaves to cut the sugar cane.

There were also one or two thousand Korean "comfort women" (kanji in Japanese), abducted young women from Japan 's colony of Korea to service the Japanese soldiers as sex slaves. (See The Comfort Women: Japan 's Brutal Regime of Enforced Prostitution in the Second World War, by George Hicks.)

Within a week of their landing, the Marines set up a civilian prisoner encampment that quickly attracted a couple thousand Japanese and others wanting US food and protection. When word of this reached Emperor Hirohito - who contrary to the myth was in full charge of the war - he became alarmed that radio interviews of the well-treated prisoners broadcast to Japan would subvert his people's will to fight.

As meticulously documented by historian Herbert Bix in Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan, the Emperor issued an order for all Japanese civilians on Saipan to commit suicide. The order included the promise that, although the civilians were of low caste, their suicide would grant them a status in heaven equal to those honored soldiers who died in combat for their Emperor.

And that is why the precipice in the picture above is known as Suicide Cliff, off which over 20,000 Japanese civilians jumped to their deaths to comply with their fascist emperor's desire - mothers flinging their babies off the cliff first or in their arms as they jumped.

Anyone reluctant or refused, such as the Okinawan or Korean slaves, were shoved off at gunpoint by the Jap soldiers. Then the soldiers themselves proceeded to hurl themselves into the ocean to drown off a sea cliff afterwards called Banzai Cliff. Of the 31,000 Japanese soldiers on Saipan , the Marines killed 25,000, 5,000 jumped off Banzai Cliff, and only the remaining thousand were taken prisoner.

The extent of this demented fanaticism is very hard for any civilized mind to fathom - especially when it is devoted not to anything noble but barbarian evil instead. The vast brutalities inflicted by the Japanese on their conquered and colonized peoples of China , Korea , the Philippines , and throughout their "Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere" was a hideously depraved horror.

And they were willing to fight to the death to defend it. So they had to be nuked. The only way to put an end to the Japanese barbarian horror was unimaginably colossal destruction against which they had no defense whatever. Nuking Japan was not a matter of justice, revenge, or it getting what it deserved. It was the only way to end the Japanese dementia.

And it worked - for the Japanese. They stopped being barbarians and started being civilized. They achieved more prosperity - and peace - than they ever knew, or could have achieved had they continued fighting and not been nuked. The shock of getting nuked is responsible.

We achieved this because we were determined to achieve victory. Victory without apologies. Despite perennial liberal demands we do so, America and its government has never apologized for nuking Japan .. Hopefully, America never will.

Image

Oh, yes... Guinness lists Saipan as having the best, most equitable, weather in the world. And the beaches? Well, take a look:

Image

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Thu Dec 02, 2010 12:29 pm
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Post Re: WW2 History of How the War Ended
Now that sure is an interesting bit of History, certainly unknown in my scope of the things about WWII and Enola Gay with her Little Boy.

Sh*tty history it is, yet an interesting story as little is ever told about the logistics re this event. Thanks for sharing it L2L.


:hmm

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Thu Dec 02, 2010 1:12 pm
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Post Re: WW2 History of How the War Ended
I had my reservations posting it due to the amount of civilians that died.

None the less this is a part of our history and it's slowy fading away back to nature.

What struck me in the head was how many times do ya think little places like this have slowly faded away into nature never to be seen again... :hmm

Makes me wonder if we should not have a History Section of this site for threas like this?

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Thu Dec 02, 2010 4:31 pm
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Post Re: WW2 History of How the War Ended
FWIW L2L, you have a history file in the Members only Section under The Active Mind - called "Are You A History Buff?"


:cool

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Fri Dec 03, 2010 3:21 am
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Post Re: WW2 History of How the War Ended
I didn't see this post before. Thank you, L!

My Dad was at Tinian and Saipan during World War II. As I've stated elsewhere, his ship was practicing the invasion of Japan when the bomb was dropped on Hiroshima.

My Dad assisted with landing the Marines at Okinawa and Iwo Jima. He then floated in this tiny craft offshore these islands for 24 hours while kamakazi planes strafed them and targeted the hospital ships. His ship, the USS Barrow, was a troop transport ship for Marines. After the landing, it was turned into a hospital ship. After 24 hours, he (and others) would run the landing craft to the beach and pick up wounded and take them to their ships. Then they would load up with ammnition, food, etc. and land again. This process continued until the island was subdued.

His responsibility for the invasion of Japan was to run landing craft up a river in Japan. They were told to expect 80 to 90% casualties.

:candle

Here is her entry from Wikipedia:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Barrow_(APA-61)

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Post Re: WW2 History of How the War Ended
Sky wrote:
FWIW L2L, you have a history file in the Members only Section under The Active Mind - called "Are You A History Buff?"
:cool


Topics merged thanks for the heads up I could not find that other thread :roflmao

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Post Re: Are you a History buff?
rutsuyasun wrote:
WOW, L, I was just looking for a place to post this, and couldn't find one until I saw this thread. Great minds!! ...... With the interest in Monday, April 19, I thought I'd see what else happened on that day. As we all know, history repeats itself, so:


Yet another april date: 1947.04.20


Nazi`s Agartha subway

From the letter of Karl Unger from a U-boat 209 @ 1947.04.20
(1)
Image

to the Map of Asgard /Antartica showing the subway to Agartha
(2)
Image
Hi res:
http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-W3jE2Rbrhmw/T ... Asgard.png
Quote:
a 1944 map from the Third Reich detailing not only the direct passageway used by German U-boats to access this subterranean domain, but also a complete map of both hemispheres of the inner realm of Agharta!


with the instruction to navigate there -English Translate- from the original:
(3)
Image
-
Notes:
(1)
http://www.ourhollowearth.com/GermanU-209.htm
(2)
http://hollowplanet.blogspot.in/2011/07 ... rance.html
(3)
http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-S0Dzj8oKqDU/T ... ctions.jpg

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Sun Dec 22, 2013 8:30 am
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Post Re: WW2 History of How the War Ended
That is a neat bit of history recall!

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Post Re: WW2 History of How the War Ended
I will add the Russian Army Parade Victory Day
June 24 1945 over Nazi Germany in the Great Patriotic War

Quote:
24 июня 1945 года. Москва. Красная Площадь.Сталин. Жуков. Будённый.
Victory Parade. June 24, 1945. Moscow. Red Square. Stalin. Zhukov. Budyonny.



http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c2DqWGY1QHM

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Post Re: WW2 History of How the War Ended
Hitler hidden in Argentina
(1)
Quote:
ADOLF Hitler escaped by submarine to ARGENTINA where he lived in a heavily guarded ranch at the end of the Second World War suffering from asthma and ulcers, according to sensational claims contained in newly released FBI files.


Image
Quote:
An amazing cache of files shows that J Edgar Hoover’s FBI took claims of Hitler’s survival seriously and a team was assigned to exploring scores of tip offs.

The astonishing documents detail how an Argentinean fugitive claimed he helped Hitler, two women and other Germans disembark from a submarine in the South American country approximately two and half weeks after the fall of Berlin in April 1945.

Hitler and his companions then went by horse pack to the foothills of the southern Andes, and the plan was for the 50-strong group to move in with German families in villages in the area.


Image

Quote:
The Argentinian informant, who gave the information over to the US authorities hoping to get asylum in return, is not named in the papers.


Online FBI Files on Hitler
http://vault.fbi.gov/adolf-hitler/adolf ... of-04/view
Notes:
(1)
http://www.express.co.uk/news/weird/470 ... -Argentina

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Thu Apr 17, 2014 7:56 am
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Post Re: WW2 History of How the War Ended
The rumours of Hitler living the bunker scene that we are all familiar with have been going on for years.

I for one don't know what to think of the above posting :hmm

Thanks for posting it Recall :clap

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Post Re: WW2 History of How the War Ended
When we lived in South America, we came across many people who firmly believed Hitler died in Argentina and not in the bunker in Berlin.

Thanks, recall!

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Sat Apr 19, 2014 9:10 am
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Post Re: WW2 History of How the War Ended
Bluebonnet wrote:
When we lived in South America, we came across many people who firmly believed Hitler died in Argentina and not in the bunker in Berlin.

Thanks, recall!


So many rumours about his death, its funny how the Russians claimed his body was burned outside the bunker yet they found no evidence of this, I always thought that story sounded fishy :sherlock :hmm

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Post Re: WW2 History of How the War Ended

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yC2HUTLHm2A

An Again:
Image
Image (1)
Quote:
The Eden Hotel in La Falda, Cordoba [in Argentina] was owned by Ida and Walter Eichhorn, who were close friends of Hitler, explains Weschler. Hitler sent them a Mercedes Benz as a gift. It was the first Benz in Argentina.

The once-opulent hotel, now in ruins, was the site of lavish parties, and a host of notables, including Albert Einstein, stayed there in the Twenties and Thirties. The Eichhorns were very vocal in their support for the Nazi party, and made financial contributions.

They also broadcast speeches Hitler's, whenever he spoke on the radio, throughout the hotel.

Citing a September 1945 letter from the FBI (one of the documents declassified in the Nineties), Weschler points to the lines that show that the FBI believed that if Hitler got into trouble, he could always find a safe haven with the Eichhorns if he could manage to get there. Weschler found former employees of the hotel who say they met and waited on Hitler after the war there.

It was easy for them to recognize him, because his picture was all over the hotel, says Weschler. He says that his research shows that Hitler moved on from the hotel to an isolated rural estate in Argentina, where he lived out his days with Braun and their two daughters, and that he died in the mid-Sixties.

Particularly persuasive evidence, according to Weschler, is DNA testing done in 2009 on Hitler's skull fragments that were recovered from the Bunker.

They showed that they couldn't have been Hitler's skull because they were from a woman under 40, says Weschler, a finding that was reported in the mainstream press.

"DNA doesn't lie," he says. "The more you look into it, the less credible the official version becomes, and the more plausible an alternative theory seems."



https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hTgSxqoARYQ

Notes:
(1)
http://tst.greyfalcon.us/bizarre.htm

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Post Re: WW2 History of How the War Ended
Sud Amerikas´ Map Fabricated by William Stephenson friend of Churchill handed to President Roosevelt circa september , 1941.
Image

It was used in a speech @ October 27 1941 (1)

Quote:
In an effort to convince his listeners that Germany was a real threat to American security, Roosevelt continued his Navy Day speech with a startling announcement: "Hitler has often protested that his plans for conquest do not extend across the Atlantic Ocean. I have in my possession a secret map, made in Germany by Hitler's government -- by the planners of the new world order. It is a map of South America and a part of Central America as Hitler proposes to reorganize it." This map, the President explained, showed South America, as well as "our great life line, the Panama Canal," divided into five vassal states under German domination. "That map, my friends, makes clear the Nazi design not only against South America but against the United States as well."

Notes:
(1)
http://library.flawlesslogic.com/map.htm

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Post Re: WW2 History of How the War Ended
Hitlers was alive circa 29 september 1955 according to a desclasify document and pic by C I A:
Here:
https://www.cia.gov/library/readingroom ... F_0003.pdf
:whistle

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Fri Sep 15, 2017 12:24 am
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